If we are not ignorant about these 12 things then we would attain liberation but unfortunately we are bonded due to wrong or invalid knowledge on the above.
So whats the way we can achieve valid knowledge?
This is where Pramaana kicks in!... According to Nyaya there are 4 distinct fountains of current knowledge:
1. Perception (Pratyaksha Pramaana)
2. Inference (Anumaana Pramaana)
3. Comparison (Upamaana Pramaana)
4. Testimony (Sadba Pramaana)
Also knowledge is gained through Experience (Anubhava) and also through memory (Smriti). Experiential knowledge is received through above 4 ways and memory is essentially is acquired through anubhava but stored and recollected over a period of time.
There are few ways of Invalid knowledege (Aprama), which are Samsaya (Doubt - Inability to conclude / determine), faulty conginition (Bhrama) and Hypothetical argument (based on).
Lets look at what perception is.
Perception (Pratyaksha Pramaana) - Knowledge produced by the conjunction (Contact) of an object and an organ. So what are the operative components of perception, lets take an example of we perceiving a blue color jar. There are 6 components which are "recognized" during the perception process...
1. Conjunction - Samyoga Sannikarsah - Eye sees a Jar which is the conjunction of Object (Jar) and Organ - Eye.
2. Inherent Union with what has come into contact - Samyukta Samavayah (Blue color is the inherent union with the Jar which is also perceived)
3. Inherent Union with what is intimately united with a thing that has come into contact. - Samyukta Samaveta Samavayah (This is the recognition of Genus "Colorness" which is the inherent union that is Intimately united (blue color) with the object (Jar)).
4. Inherent Union of the organ - Samavayah Sannikarsah - through the organ of seeing - Eye in this case.
5. Inherent union with the intimately United - Samaveta Samavaya Sannikarsah. - (In the same way Genus "Sight")
6. The connection of the attribute to the substantiative. - Visesana Visesyabhava Sanniskara
- Perceptions could be classified based type of contact Ordinary perception- (Laukika) which is based on direct contact and Alukika (Extraordinary Perception) based on indirect contact.
The ordinary perception (laukika) process has 2 stages - Indeterminate (Nirvikalpa - without knowing the quality such as color, shape but recognizing the jar) and Determinate (Savikalpa) which is definite and explicit. Most perception processes are generally first indeterminate and then determinate. The speed at which this happens in an individual determines how sharp the person is.
The extraordinary perception (alaukika) is divided into:
- Samanya Lakshana (identification of classes or generality in one thing .... for example it can be understanding Human being are mortal. Here humanity and mortality are generic classes identified.)
- Jnana Lakshana (Perception of association) ... when we see ice we also perceive that it is cold, this does not happen because we directly feel coldness but through association.)
- Yogaja - Perceptions acquired through yogic practices.
Perceptions could also be classified based type of modes External perception- (Bahya) which is based on 5 senses and Internal (Manasa) based on mind as an internal faculty perceiving pain, pleasure, aversion, desire, cognition etc.
This is perception in brief. Just look at the depth of definition, classifications and most importantly the interlinkages between systems ex. Yogaja which is based on the Yoga school of thought and has little to do with Nyaya system.
When you take time to read the other aspects of this philosophy, you will understand and appreciate the depth of thinking, not loose but very structured that was there ages before which is our inheritence, but lost some where, some how...
We are ensconsed in "bliss" and even for those who have come across this for the first time in this blog would still be ignorant just like me, but for the fact that they would have moved one item from "unknown-unknown" to "known-unknown" .
By this measure the toughest jobs are that of "Quality or brand professionals" who earn their bread by managing & improving "perception of a perception".
Happy reading !